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BIOLOGY

Circulation

AB
circulationtransport of materials within cells and/or throughout multicellular organisms
intracellular circulationcirculation inside the cell
intercellular circulationcirculation that occurs between cells
passive transporttransport that requires no cellular energy (diffusion)
diffusiontransport where materilas pass through the cell membrane from higher to lower concentration
osmosisdiffusion of water through the membrance
active transportrequires cellular energy from lower to higher concentration
pinocytosiscells take in particles that are too large to pass through membrane
phagocytosiscell engulfs a large particle by flowing around it and storing in vacuole
xylemspecialized tubes rinning from the roots to leaves and carry water and minerals
phloemspecialized tubes running from roots to leaves that carry food up and down plant for use and storage
plasmaliquid part of blood that carries dissolved materials
red blood cellscontain hemoglobin that carries oxygen to all cells; lack nuclei
plateletshelp blood clot; smaller that red and white blood cells
white blood cellshelp defend against infection
lymphocyteswhite blood cells that produce anitbodies
antigensmolecules or organisms foreign to the human immune system
phagocyteswhite blood cells attracted to the antigen-antibody clumps to engulf and destroy them
vaccinationsweakened or mild form of pathogen that causes permanent immunity
allergieswhen the immune system overreacts to a usually harmless antigen producing histamines
autoimmune diseaseswhen the immune system makes mistakes and attacks own cells
intercellular fluidfluid surrounding all living cells
lymphwhen intercellular fluid passes into lymph vessels
arteriestransport blood away from the heart
capillariestake blood to every cell int he body; exchange material between blood and intercellular fluid
veinsreturn oxygenated blood to the heart
lymph vesselssmall vessels that carry lymph and branch through all body tissues
lymph nodeslettle swellings in lymph vessels; clean lymph by filtering our bacteria and dead cells
atriumone chamber of the heart that receives blood
ventricleone chamber of the heart that pumps blood
high blood pressurenarrowing of arteries because of fat build-up on walls
coronary thrombosisheart attack; blockage of coronary artery that feeds the heart muscle
angina pectorischest pain; narrowing of the coronary arteries due to fatty deposit build-up
anemiacondition where the body's ability to carry oxygen is impaired
leukemiadisease of bone marrow; uncontrolled production of nonfunctional white blood cells


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