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Chapter 1 Crime and Criminal Justics Definitions

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Crime Control ModelValues discretion to quickly sort out factually innocent from factually guilty.
Criminal Justice SystemA loose confederation of agencies, including police, courts, and corrections.
Criminal Justice ProcessThe sorting of individuals for further action or removing them from the criminal justice system.
DiscretionDecision making guided by informal criteria rather than laws and other written rules.
Due ProcessThe value of formal rules and procedures to limit the power of government and protect the rights of individuals.
FeloniesOffenses for which an offender may be sentenced to a year or more in prison.
Formal Criminal JusticeThe law and other written rules that determine the outer boundaries of action in criminal justice.
Funnel EffectFewer individuals remaining at successive stages in the criminal process resulting from sorting deisions.
Hydraulic EffectThe shifting of discretion from one level in the justice process to another.
Informal Criminal JusticeThe reality of criminal justice in action, often quite different from the formal parameters.
MisdemeanorsOffenses punishable by fines or jailing for less than a year.
Presuption Of GuiltTreats individuals in the criminal justice process as probably guilty.
Presumption Of InnocenceTreat all individuals as innocent until proven guilty according to legally correct proceedings.
VigilantesCitizens who circumvent the rule of law by "taking the law into their own hands.
Wedding Cake ModelTendency for the criminal justice system to respond to cases in terms of the degrees of public attention that they receive.

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