Roger Sherman's proposal broke the deadlock between the large and small states when he proposed a bicameral legislature with house to represent the states and a second house to represent the people.
This great compromise provided for equal representation in the senate and proportional representation in the House. This model created checks and balances which enabled the states to prevent the Congress from exercising powers that were not delegated to them.
The Founders wanted to make sure that the integrity of the senate needed to be protected so they added an amendment protection clause to Article V. The clause prohibits Congress from proposing any amendment that would deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the senate.
In order for the 17th Amendment to have been lawfully ratified all of the 48 states that existed at the time it was proposed would have been required to ratify it.
In 1913 thirty six of the forty-eight states ratified the proposed amendment
and twelve id not. Today Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, South Georgia, Virginia and Utah have not yet given Congress their consent to give up their representation in the senate.
The right of these states to be represented in senate has been stolen from them and either Article V needs to be re-written or the 17th Amendment needs to be declared null and void.
The direct election of senators has converted our bicameral legislature into a unicameral legislature with two houses representing the people and no house representing the states.